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this I agree (cf. Donfried (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991 29-43. Josephus uses the term when referring to the Jews who opposed Caius Caesar when he wanted to set up his statues in the Temple, destroy those who resisted and take captive the rest of the nation ( War. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht, 1989. The idea that Paul has in mind is opposition to governing authorities on issues that should not result in Christian opposition.

Dibelius later changed his view. Others have followed in a similar vein for various reasons including the assumption that the letter reads better if understood to refer to a Jewish Christian audience alone. Those who obey will have praise from the state and need not live in fear of it (13:3b). It is knowledge that is mostly always painful as it is concerned with bad acts from which the suneivdhsi" produces guilt. "The Argument of Romans 13:1-7." Novum Testamentum 31 (1989 325-43. If the state does not function according to its proper authority, but exceeds such limits by calling for "greater submission than God has ordered, it will come under the judgment of God." 74 According to Dunn, this balancing of the. Tasker (Grand Rapids: William. Dues paid by a subject nation (cf. 25 See William Sanday and Arthur. In the middle of a discussion about the Essenes and their duties, Josephus says that an Essene should obey the ruling authorities "because no one obtains the government without God's assistance" ( War.

115 Or, does it have a more spiritual denotation as in 8:8? Ernst Ksemann, New Testament Questions of Today (London: SCM Press, 1969 199. "El verbo 'Hypotassein' y la parenesis social de 1 Pe 2, 11-17." EfemMex 9 (1991 57-70. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1993. He cites Tacitus, Histories, III. 164 jApovdote is an imperative verb with a continuous nuance. The reference in 1 Corinthians refers to Christians taking on the likeness of Christ just as they had the likeness of Adam while on the earth before glorification. 169 bagd, 817, *2b.

The term leitourgoiv means "servants but appears to always have a sacral connotation. First, Cullmann's reading of 1 Cor 2:8 and 6:3 is by no means "manifestly clear" as to the involvement of both angels and rulers. "Isaiah." In The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Angels and Principalities: The Background, Meaning and Development of the Pauline Phrase hai archai kai hai exousiai. "Paul and the 'Powers That Be'." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 66 (1984 78-96. Although Paul wrote some eight years earlier there does not appear to be direct literary dependence on Peter's part.

Cullmann argues that the "authorities" in Romans 13 are indeed human rulers, but they are controlled by angelic powers. Reid (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993 853;. That they both refer to the government and its retributive justice with the same language of "revenge" or "avenger" would seem to point to a common understanding and tradition. The construction tends to emphasize the present aspect of the appointment and tetagmevnai continues the language of order and submission that pervades Romans 13:1-7. See also Morris, Romans, 462. Lorimer, on the basis of Greek writers' reluctance to repeat a compound, argues for the authenticity of tw ajgaqoevrgw. 6, even if the authorship of the Pastorals is questioned, it remains an argument from silence.

Lgasse, "Paul et Csar, Romains 13, 1-7: Essai de Synthse Revue Biblique 101 (October 1994 520, who affirms that "La diatrib est caractristique de Paul." 102 Morris, Romans, 463, seems to understand the reference to toV ajgaqoVn in 13:3 as a reference. Many commentators take teleite as an indicative and an example therefore of the divine origin of civil government. Paul: An Outline of His Theology. 117 Hendricksen, Romans, 435. Strathmann, tdnt, 4:231.

The state's superior quality of justness) to influence the answer he gives to the question of obedience to the state. "The Christian and the Authorities in Romans 13:1-7." Direction 14 (1985 44-50. Frank E Gaebelein, vol. Cranfield, Romans, 2:664,. See also Bruce. The reference to submission ( uJpotavssesqai ) once again takes us back to the imperative in verse. Authority in Paul and Peter: The Identification of a Pastoral Stratum in the Pauline Corpus and in 1 Peter. 39 Concerning taV" ajrcaV" kaiV taV" ejxousiva" as a reference to Roman officials see, John Nolland, Luke 9:21-18:34, Word Biblical Commentary,.

There we saw that the pericope, while somewhat abrupt in that there are no explicit connectors, 31 nonetheless continues the thought-line in the immediate setting of 12:9-21 and 13:8ff. The sense, however, is clear from the context and if we take the accusative as reference/respect, then we could translate the clause as follows: "these leitourgoiv give themselves with respect to this very thing." 160 So Cranfield, Romans, 669; Fitzmyer, Romans, 669; Morris, Romans, 467. Later on Paul will talk about other motivations for civil obediencefear, praise and consciencebut for now he wants his readers to know that governmental authority and those who carry it out are from God. 65 The Rationale for Submission (13:1b-5) A Theological Basis (13:1b-2a) 13:1b ouj gaVr estin ejxousiva eij mhV uJpoV qeou aiJ deV ousai uJpoV qeou' tetagmevnai eijsivn. The second use in 3:9 refers to unification of Jew and Gentile in one body as the expression of God's plan in Christ. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1968. JAnagkhv is used in the NT approximately 18 times. Moule (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984 365. Paul uses it 22 times.

"Church and State in the New Testament." Dialog 15 (1976 21-28. Wearing) and that is the sense here in Romans 13:4 as well. But he may have more in mind as well. Taxes are collected by the authorities because they are leitourgoiV. 37 Compare 1 Cor 15:45 and Genesis 2:7.hY:j' vp, n l!d;a;h; yhiyw". With this overarching theme in Romans, the civil injunctions in chapter 13 mesh quite well.

"Let every person be submissive to the governing authorities." Pa'sa yuchv literally means "every soul." It occurs in one other place in Romans with the same meaning as 13:1 (cf. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980 353; Everett. "For this reason ( diaV touto gavr ) you pay taxes, for ( gavr ) those in authority are God's servants who persist in this very thing." The expression diaV tou'to looks backward, not to conscience alone. 66 So Fitzmyer, Romans, 667, who recognizes that the sense is ajpov but that the manuscript evidence for it is basically Western with its tendency to smooth out the text. " For ( gavr ) there is no authority except that which is given by God and those who are appointed by God." The gaVr indicates that what follows is the rationale for the command given in 13:1a. 33 (Toronto: Doubleday, 1993 663, 64 for a list of commentators who reject the passage due to the lack of Christological emphases. Some have postulated sinful Adam, others Satan, etc.

The Letter of Paul to the Romans. Second, conscience should not be identified that closely with God. We will begin with uJperecouvsai". Its contribution to the argument has been carefully demonstrated by Stein. 77 Another occurrence of the word is found in Hosea 1:6. 1 Macc 10:33; Luke 20:22). Translated by Geoffrey.

One may also refer to the terms diavkono" (v. Ireneaus, Against Heresies,. Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because the civil authorities will punish those who resist them (2b-3a) and praise and do good to them that obey (2b-4). "The Methodology of Proceeding From Exegesis to an Ethical Decision." Neotestamentica 19 (1985 87-91. But, with the presence of ktivsei (1 Pet 2:13 it is possible to see traces of this idea. 147 That future acts are in view is made quite clear when one considers the fact that Paul uses the present tense to urge continuous (obviously future from the standpoint of the readers) submission to the authorities (vv.1, 5). For further discussion of this issue, see. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.

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